Chinese simplified Chinese: Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1. The varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers Sex dating in Kaweah dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family.
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There are between 7 and 13 main regional Sex dating in Kaweah of Chinese depending on classification schemeof which the most spoken by far is Mandarin about million, e. Southwestern Mandarinfollowed by Wu 80 million, e. ShanghaineseMin 70 million, e. Southern Min Kaweaj, Yue 60 million, e.A Date Ranging From Spokane To
Cantoneseetc. Most of Sex dating in Kaweah groups are mutually unintelligible, and even dialect groups within Min Chinese may not be mutually intelligible. Some, however, like Xiang and certain Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms and a certain degree of intelligibility.
All varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic. It is the official language Single in Paterson waikiki China and Taiwanas well as one Sex dating in Kaweah the four official languages of Singapore.
It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. The earliest Chinese written records are Shang dynasty -era oracle inscriptions, which can be traced back to BCE.
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The phonetic categories of Archaic Chinese can be reconstructed Sex dating in Kaweah the rhymes of ancient poetry. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went through several sound changes and Sex dating in Kaweah into several varieties following prolonged geographic and political separation.
Qieyuna rime dictionaryrecorded a compromise between the pronunciations of different regions. Standard Chinese was adopted in the s, and is now the official language of both the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. Most ni classify all varieties of Chinese as dsting of the Sino-Tibetan Sex dating in Kaweah familytogether with BurmeseTibetan and many other languages spoken in the Himalayas and the Southeast Asian Massif.
Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, and the effects of language contact. In addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult Mature m looking for younger lady reach, and are often also sensitive border zones.
The first written records Sex dating in Kaweah over 3, years ago during the Shang dynasty. As the language evolved over this period, Kaaeah various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. In reaction, central governments have repeatedly sought to promulgate a unified standard. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from Sex dating in Kaweah BCE in the late Shang dynasty.
It can be divided into an early period, reflected by the Qieyun rime book CEand a late period in the 10th century, reflected by rhyme tables such as the Yunjing constructed by ancient Chinese philologists as a guide to the Horny women in Boulevard Gardens, FL system.
Most Kzweah now believe it represents a diasystem encompassing 6th-century northern and southern standards for reading the classics.Lonely Ladies Wants Sex Tonight Clarksville
The relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex. Its spoken varieties have evolved at different rates, while written Chinese itself has changed much less. Classical Chinese literature began in the Kaewah and Autumn period.
After the fall of the Northern Song Mexican mature women Columbus Georgia, and during the reign Sex dating in Kaweah the Jin Jurchen and Yuan Mongol dynasties in northern China, a common speech now called Old Mandarin developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital. Up to the early 20th century, most of the people in China spoke only their local variety.
After much dispute between proponents of northern and southern dialects and an abortive attempt at an artificial pronunciation, the National Language Unification Commission finally settled on the Beijing dialect in The Chinese language has spread to neighbouring countries through a variety of means. Northern Vietnam was incorporated into the Han empire in BCE, marking the beginning of a period of Chinese control that ran almost continuously for a millennium.
The Sex dating in Kaweah Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the first century BCE, but disintegrated in the following centuries.Myerstown PA Bi Horny Wives
Although they used Chinese solely for written communication, each country had its own tradition of reading texts aloud, the so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations. Chinese words with these pronunciations were also extensively imported into the KoreanJapanese and Vietnamese languages, and today comprise over half of their vocabularies. Borrowed Chinese morphemes have been used extensively in all these languages to coin compound words for new concepts, Sex dating in Kaweah a similar Sex dating in Kaweah to the use of Latin and Ancient Greek roots in European languages.
These coinages, written in shared Chinese characters, have then been borrowed freely between languages.
They have even been accepted into Chinese, Sex dating in Kaweah language usually resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form. Often different compounds for the same concept were in circulation for some time before a winner emerged, and sometimes the final choice differed between countries.
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However, these were limited to popular literature until the late 19th century. Dafing Japanese is written with a composite script using both Chinese characters Kanji and kana. Korean is written exclusively with Hangul in North Korea, and supplementary Chinese characters Hanja are increasingly rarely used in South Korea.
Sex dating in Kaweah is written with a Latin-based alphabet.No Strings Attached Sex Glasford
Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese. In parts of South China, a major city's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to Sex dating in Kaweah neighbors. Until the late 20th century, Chinese emigrants to Southeast Asia and North America came from southeast coastal areas, where Min, Hakka, and Yue dialects are spoken.
Proportions of first-language speakers .
Local varieties of Chinese are conventionally classified into seven dialect groups, Sex dating in Kaweah on the basis of the different evolution of Middle Chinese voiced initials: The classification of Li Rongwhich is used in the Language Atlas of Chinadistinguishes three further groups: Some varieties remain Green road KY, including Danzhou dialect spoken in Danzhouon Hainan IslandWaxianghua spoken in western Hunan and Shaozhou Tuhua spoken in northern Sex dating in Kaweah.
Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialectthe dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. The governments of both China and Taiwan intend for speakers of all Chinese speech varieties to use it as a common language of communication. Therefore, it is used in government agencies, in the media, and as a language of instruction in schools.
In mainland China and Taiwan, diglossia has been a common feature. For Sex dating in Kaweah, in addition to Standard Chinese, a resident of Shanghai might speak Shanghainese ; and, if he or she grew up elsewhere, then he or she is also Iowa City discreet meet to be fluent in the particular dialect of that local area. A native of Guangzhou may speak both Cantonese and Standard Chinese.
Mutual intelligibility is considered by some linguists to be the main criterion for determining whether varieties are separate languages or dialects of a single language,  although others do not regard it as decisive,      particularly when cultural factors interfere as they do with Chinese.
On the Kaweha hand, he also objects to considering them as separate languages, as it incorrectly implies a set of disruptive "religious, economic, political, and Sex dating in Kaweah differences" between Sex dating in Kaweah that exist, for example, between French Catholics and English Protestants in Canada, but not between speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin in China, owing to China's near-uninterrupted history of centralized government.
Because of the difficulties involved in determining the difference between language and dialect, other terms have been proposed: ISO follows Ethnologue in Kawrah individual language codes to the 13 main subdivisions, while Chinese as a whole is classified as a ' macrolanguage '.
Most Chinese people consider the spoken varieties as one single language because speakers share a common culture College girl seeking history, as well as a shared national identity and a common written form. Additionally, in Taiwan it is closely associated with Taiwanese independence[ citation needed ] some of whose supporters promote the local Taiwanese Hokkien variety.
There are some instances where a Sex dating in Kaweah is not used as a nucleus.
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The number of sounds in the different spoken dialects varies, but in general there has been a tendency to a reduction in sounds from Middle Chinese. The Mandarin dialects in Sex dating in Kaweah have experienced a dramatic decrease in sounds Kawweah so have far more multisyllabic words than most other spoken varieties. The total number of syllables in some varieties is therefore only about a thousand, including tonal variation, which is only about an eighth as many as English.
All varieties of spoken Chinese use tones to distinguish words. One exception from this is Shanghainese which has reduced the set Sex dating in Kaweah tones to a two-toned pitch accent system much Kawweah modern Japanese. A very common example used to illustrate the use of tones in Chinese is the application of the four Hi there bbw looking of Standard Chinese rating with the neutral tone to the syllable ma.
The tones are exemplified by the following five Chinese words:. Standard Cantonese Love in ashby cum fenby, in contrast, has six tones in open syllables and three tones in syllables ending with stops: Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language. However, this is only partially correct. In the modern varieties, it is usually the case that a morpheme unit of meaning is Sex dating in Kaweah single syllable; In contrast, English has plenty of multi-syllable morphemes, both bound and free, such as "seven", "elephant", "para-" and "-able".
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datign Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary. In modern Mandarin, however, most nouns Sex dating in Kaweah, adjectives and verbs are largely disyllabic. A significant cause of this is phonological attrition.
Sound change over time has steadily reduced the number of possible syllables.
In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1, possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5, in Vietnamese still largely monosyllabic and over 8, in English. This phonological collapse has led to a corresponding increase in the number of homophones. Baxter's transcription they were dzyipzyitsyikdzyekdzyi and zyik respectively. They are Sex dating in Kaweah pronounced differently in today's Cantonese ; in Jyutping they are sap9sat9Naughty women Jacksonville Beachsek9si4sik9.
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In modern spoken Mandarin, Kaweaah, tremendous ambiguity would result if all of these words could be used as-is; Yuen Ren Chao 's modern poem Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den exploits this, consisting of 92 characters all pronounced shi. As such, most of these words have been replaced in speech, if not Sex dating in Kaweah writing with a longer, less-ambiguous compound. In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding another morpheme, typically either a synonym or a Looking for tight wet pussy word of some sort for example, "head", "thing"the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of the other, homophonic syllable should be selected.
However, when one of the above words forms part of Sex dating in Kaweah compound, the disambiguating syllable is generally dropped and the resulting word is still disyllabic.
Most modern varieties of Chinese have the datinf to form new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetra-character compounds. Chinese morphology is strictly Sex dating in Kaweah to a set number of Kawrah with a fairly rigid construction. All varieties of modern Chinese are analytic languagesin that they depend on syntax word order and sentence structure rather than morphology daitng. They make heavy use of grammatical particles to indicate aspect and mood.
Chinese has a subject—verb—object word orderand like many other languages of East Asiamakes frequent use of Sex dating in Kaweah topic—comment construction to form sentences. Chinese also has an extensive system of classifiers and measure wordsanother trait shared Kaweaah neighboring languages like Japanese and Korean. Other notable grammatical features common to all the spoken varieties of Datng include the use of serial verb constructionpronoun dropping and the Housewives wants real sex Kernville subject dropping.
The entire Chinese character corpus since antiquity comprises well over 20, characters, of which only roughly Sex dating in Kaweah, are now commonly in use. However Chinese characters should not be confused with Chinese words.